1998 Fall Meeting Abstracts

Abstracts From Fall 1998


Toxicology Alcohol | Firearms | Drugs / Clan Labs | Trace / Scenes | Arson | Wildlife | Serology | Other
Pick your section





Toxicology

1. TITLE: "AUTOMATED URINE TOXICOLOGY SCREENING"

AUTHOR: Aaron Brudenell, Idaho Bureau of Forensic Services

ABSTRACT: This is a product review of fully automated urine toxicology screening system using a Labotech instrument from Biochem Immunosystems and STC Technologies assays for drugs of abuse. Details of the system and its capabilities are discussed including robotic hardware, computer software, and reagent/assay kits are discussed from a user standpoint with a focus on accuracy and efficiency in the forensic laboratory.
 

Alcohol
No abstracts for this topic.
 
 

Firearms and related topics

1. TITLE: "BULLET TRAJECTORY IDENTIFICATION AND DOCUMENTATION-FROM SCENE TO COURTROOM"

AUTHOR: Kay M. Sweeney, KMS Forensics

ABSTRACT: There are basically four activities involved in the preservation and presentation of bullet trajectory information in Forensic applications.

1. Collection and Documentation of trajectory data.

2. Scientific evaluation and interpretation of the trajectory data.

3. Reporting conclusions.

4. Courtroom presentation of conclusions.

Traditionally, most time and effort is invested in the collection, documentation, scientific development of conclusions and formulating reports of these conclusions phases and the courtroom presentation is handled when the need arises. In other words, others tend to dictate how scientific data will be presented in court. As scientists, we are responsible for our conclusions and should be intimately involved in planning how our conclusions will be presented in court. Visual aids should be seriously considered to augment oral testimony. Methods available to us include photographs, diagrams, models and video animation. There are pros and cons to the use of all. generally, the best approach is to use multiple visual aids, as demonstrated in this presentation.

2. TITLE: "UNUSUAL GUNSHOT DEATHS"

AUTHOR: Dr. Larry Lewman ,Chief Medical Examiner, Oregon

ABSTRACT: No abstract submitted.
 
 
 
 

Drug Chemistry and Clandestine Labs

1. TITLE: "ADVANTAGES OF RAMEN SPECTROSCOPY IN FORENSIC ANALYSIS"

AUTHOR: Arnold Melnikoff Washington State Patrol Crime Laboratory-Spokane

ABSTRACT:

Recent advances in technology namely the Nd:YAG near infrared laser coupled with improved Rayleigh filters and the FT spectrometer has brought the advantages or Ramen Spectroscopy to the bench top in the Forensic laboratory. The advantages include the analysis of samples of powders and aqueous samples directly in plastic bags, glass tubes and bottles. Ramen spectroscopy can provide increased ability to identify compounds and characterize mixtures that cannot be easily identified or characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. Examples of Forensic samples analyzed by Raman spectroscopy will be presented. Limitations of the technique will also be discussed.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Trace Evidence and Crime Scenes

1.TITLE: "AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL APPROACH TO CERTAIN CRIME SCENES"

AUTHOR: Robert M. Yohe II, Ph.D. Idaho State Historical Society

ABSTRACT: The level of information that can be extracted from an open-air crime scene, especially those involving body disposal, can be significantly enhanced by using the methods employed by field archaeologists for data recovery. For purposes of illustrating this point, the archaeological excavation and subsequent analysis of cremated human remains buried following a recent murder in remote central Idaho will be discussed in detail.
 
 
 

2. TITLE: "STATIC SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROMETRY CHARACTERIZATION OF TRACE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE"

AUTHOR: G.L. Gresham, G.S. Groenewold, W.F. Bauer, A.K. Gianotto, J.C. Ingram

ABSTRACT: Static secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) or molecular SIMS is an emerging technology for the identification and characterization of polymeric materials and organic surface adsorbents. static SIMS is a surface analysis technique where the sample surface is bombarded with an energetic beam of primary ions (5- to 3-keV) under high vacuum. During bombardment, ions such as Ar+, Cs+, Ga+, or ReO4- impact the surface of the sample causing the surface layer of atoms on the sample to be stripped (sputter) off into the gas phase. Static SIMS uses low primary ion current densities which ensure that during the analysis each primary ion has a high probability of impacting an unbombarded area of the sample. This sputtered material is primarily neutral atoms and molecules, with a very small percentage emitted as either positive or negative ions. these ions are electrostatically collected and analyzed by the mass spectrometer. Time-of-flight, quadrapole and ion trap mass analyzers were used for mass analysis in this research. Static SIMS spectra show the same specificity as in other types of mass spectrometry adsorbing compounds. The efficacy of SIMS analysis of sample surfaces was demonstrated at the INEEL in the analysis of organophosphates, organosulfides, organic amines, and metal cyanides on soil, rock, vegetation, and metal surfaces. And it is expected that the number of SIMS applications for the characterization of "real-world" samples will increase dramatically over the next decade, including the area of forensic applications.

This presentation will describe what SIMS is, what advances have been made in SIMS instrumentation and how it may impact the forensic community. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory currently is evaluating SIMS as an analytical technique to address technology gaps in analytical characterization of trace physical evidence, including paints, fingernail polish, coating material, fibers, hair and surface adsorbents. The authors thank the National Institute of Justice for funding this research.
 

3. TITLE: "UPDATE ON TRACE ANALYSIS METHODS"

AUTHORS: Max Houck, FBI Special Agent, FBI Lab

ABSTRACT: No abstract submitted.
 
 
 
 

Arson

No arson papers at this meeting
 
 
 

Wildlife Forensics

No abstracts for this subject.
 
 
 
 
 

DNA and Conventional Serology

1. TITLE: "MITOCHONDRIAL DNA"

AUTHORS: Joe Dizinno, FBI Special Agent Unit Chief, FBI Lab

ABSTRACT: No abstract submitted.
 
 
 

Other

1. TITLE: "SIX YEARS LATER-HOW ELECTRONIC IMAGING HAS BEEN INTEGRATED INTO EXAMINATION PROCEDURES AT THE ALASKA STATE CRIME LAB"

AUTHORS: Jim Wolfe, Alaska State Crime Lab

ABSTRACT: The Criminalistics section at the |Alaska State Crime Lab installed its first digital imaging system in 1992. Over the past six years the original black and white imaging system has evolved into two separate imaging systems, both of which have greatly enhanced the laboratory's ability to document evidence and test results.

A black and white system is used in DNA analysis to document PCR yield gels and dot blot results. Images are pasted into MS word templates and printed for case files and discovery requests.

An integrated imaging system using color and monochrome video cameras along with a Kodak digital camera is used in the general criminalistics sections. this setup features color video cameras mounted on a stereoscope, microscope and a black and white IR sensitive camera on a copy stand. These cameras can feed either into a computer or the image can be immediately printed using a color video printer. The digital camera is used for overall views of evidence and can be downloaded into one of two workstations equipped with PCMCIA card readers.

This system is used extensively by the analysts within the criminalistics section, and occasionally by examiners in other sections of the lab. The flexibility of this system offers the analysts many more options in deciding how to document the evidence. Images of evidence are routinely acquired and either quickly printed to be drawn on as evidence is processed or the images are inserted into digital worksheets and reports. These are then printed and stored in the case files.
 

2. TITLE: "DIGITAL IMAGING"

AUTHOR: Alan Myers, Eastman Kodak

ABSTRACT: No abstract submitted.